unit 2 1

September 3, 2017 | Author: api-278351473 | Category: Cascading Style Sheets, Html, Html Element, Software Development, Typography
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Web Technology

EIT-401

Lecture No. 10 CSS Introduction Cascading Style Sheets, fondly referred to as CSS, is a simple design language intended to simplify the process of making web pages presentable. CSS handles the look and feel part of a web page. Using CSS, you can control the color of the text, the style of fonts, the spacing between paragraphs, how columns are sized and laid out, what background images or colors are used, as well as a variety of other effects. CSS is easy to learn and understand but it provides powerful control over the presentation of an HTML document. Most commonly, CSS is combined with the markup languages HTML or XHTML.

Advantages of CSS: CSS saves time - You can write CSS once and then reuse same sheet in multiple HTML pages. You can define a style for each HTML element and apply it to as many Web pages as you want. Pages load faster - If you are using CSS, you do not need to write HTML tag attributes every time. Just write one CSS rule of a tag and apply to all the occurrences of that tag. So less code means faster download times. Easy maintenance - To make a global change, simply change the style, and all elements in all the web pages will be updated automatically. Superior styles to HTML - CSS has a much wider array of attributes than HTML so you can give far better look to your HTML page in comparison of HTML attributes. Multiple Device Compatibility - Style sheets allow content to be optimized for more than one type of device. By using the same HTML document, different versions of a website can be presented for handheld devices such as PDAs and cell phones or for printing. Global web standards - Now HTML attributes are being deprecated and it is being recommended to use CSS. So its a good idea to start using CSS in all the HTML pages to make them compatible to future

CSS Versions:

Cascading Style Sheets, level 1 (CSS1) was came out of W3C as a recommendation in December 1996. This version describes the CSS language as well as a simple visual formatting model for all the HTML tags. CSS2 was became a W3C recommendation in May 1998 and builds on CSS1. This version adds support for media-specific style sheets e.g. printers and aural devices, downloadable fonts, element positioning and tables.

CSS Syntax – Selectors A CSS comprises of style rules that are interpreted by the browser and then applied to the corresponding elements in your document. A style rule is made of three parts: Selector: A selector is an HTML tag at which style will be applied. This could be any tag like or etc. Property: A property is a type of attribute of HTML tag. Put simply, all the HTML attributes are converted into CSS properties. They could be color or border etc. Prepared By: Abhishek kesharwani

Lecturer, United College of Engineering and Research

Web Technology

EIT-401

Value: Values are assigned to properties. For example color property can have value either red or #F1F1F1 etc. You can put CSS Style Rule Syntax as follows:

selector { property: value } Example: You can define a table border as follows:

table{ border :1px solid #C00; } Here table is a selector and border is a property and given value 1px solid #C00 is the value of that property.

The Type Selectors: This is the same selector we have seen above. Again one more example to give a color to all level 1 headings :

h1 { color: #36CFFF; }

The Universal Selectors: Rather than selecting elements of a specific type, the universal selector quite simply matches the name of any element type :

*{ color: #000000; } This rule renders the content of every element in our document in black.

The Descendant Selectors: Suppose you want to apply a style rule to a particular element only when it lies inside a particular element. As given in the following example, style rule will apply to element only when it lies inside tag.

ul em { color: #000000; }

Prepared By: Abhishek kesharwani

Lecturer, United College of Engineering and Research

Web Technology

EIT-401

The Class Selectors: You can define style rules based on the class attribute of the elements. All the elements having that class will be formatted according to the defined rule.

.black { color: #000000; } This rule renders the content in black for every element with class attribute set to black in our document. You can make it a bit more particular. For example:

h1.black { color: #000000; } This rule renders the content in black for only elements with class attribute set to black. You can apply more than one class selectors to given element. Consider the following example :

This para will be styled by the classes center and bold.

The ID Selectors: You can define style rules based on the id attribute of the elements. All the elements having that id will be formatted according to the defined rule.

#black { color: #000000; } This rule renders the content in black for every element with id attribute set to black in our document. You can make it a bit more particular. For example:

h1#black { color: #000000; } This rule renders the content in black for only elements with id attribute set to black. The true power of id selectors is when they are used as the foundation for descendant selectors, For example:

#black h2 { color: #000000; Prepared By: Abhishek kesharwani

Lecturer, United College of Engineering and Research

Web Technology

EIT-401

} In this example all level 2 headings will be displayed in black color only when those headings will lie with in tags having id attribute set to black.

The Child Selectors: You have seen descendant selectors. There is one more type of selectors which is very similar to descendants but have different functionality. Consider the following example:

body > p { color: #000000; } This rule will render all the paragraphs in black if they are direct child of element. Other paragraphs put inside other elements like or etc. would not have any effect of this rule.

Multiple Style Rules: You may need to define multiple style rules for a single element. You can define these rules to combine multiple properties and corresponding values into a single block as defined in the following example:

h1 { color: #36C; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: .4em; margin-bottom: 1em; text-transform: lowercase; }

Grouping Selectors: h1, h2, h3 { color: #36C; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: .4em; margin-bottom: 1em; text-transform: lowercase; } You can combine various class selectors together as shown below:

#content, #footer, #supplement { position: absolute; left: 510px; width: 200px; } Prepared By: Abhishek kesharwani

Lecturer, United College of Engineering and Research

Web Technology

EIT-401

CSS Inclusion - Associating Styles There are four ways to associate styles with your HTML document. Most commonly used methods are inline CSS and External CSS.

Embedded CSS - The Element: You can put your CSS rules into an HTML document using the element. This tag is placed inside ... tags. Rules defined using this syntax will be applied to all the elements available in the document. Here is the generic syntax:

Style Rules ............

Attributes: Attributes associated with elements are: Attribute

Value

Description

type

text/css

Specifies the style sheet language as a content-type (MIME type). This is required attribute.

media

screen Specifies the device the document will be displayed on. tty Default value isall. This is optional attribute. tv projection handheld print braille aural all

Example: Following is the example of embed CSS based on above syntax:

Prepared By: Abhishek kesharwani

Lecturer, United College of Engineering and Research

Web Technology

EIT-401

h1{ color: #36C; }

Inline CSS - The style Attribute: You can use style attribute of any HTML element to define style rules. These rules will be applied to that element only. Here is the generic syntax:



Attributes: Attribute style

Value style rules

Description The value of style attribute is a combination of style declarations separated by semicolon (;).

Example: Following is the example of inline CSS based on above syntax:

This is inline CSS This will produce following result:

This is inline CSS External CSS - The Element: The element can be used to include an external stylesheet file in your HTML document. An external style sheet is a separate text file with .css extension. You define all the Style rules within this text file and then you can include this file in any HTML document using element. Here is the generic syntax of including external CSS file:



Prepared By: Abhishek kesharwani

Lecturer, United College of Engineering and Research

Web Technology

EIT-401

Attributes: Attributes associated with elements are: Attribute

Value

Description

type

text/css

Specifies the style sheet language as a content-type (MIME type). This attribute is required.

href

URL

Specifies the style sheet file having Style rules. This attribute is a required.

media

screen Specifies the device the document will be displayed on. tty Default value isall. This is optional attribute. tv projection handheld print braille aural all

Example: Consider a simple style sheet file with a name mystyle.css having the following rules:

h1, h2, h3 { color: #36C; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: .4em; margin-bottom: 1em; text-transform: lowercase; } Now you can include this file mystyle.css in any HTML document as follows:



Imported CSS - @import Rule: Prepared By: Abhishek kesharwani

Lecturer, United College of Engineering and Research

Web Technology

EIT-401

@import is used to import an external stylesheet in a manner similar to the element. Here is the generic syntax of @import rule.

Final Content goes here... Similar way you can add top navigation bar or ad bar at the top of the page. Prepared By: Abhishek kesharwani

Lecturer, United College of Engineering and Research

Web Technology

Prepared By: Abhishek kesharwani

EIT-401

Lecturer, United College of Engineering and Research

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