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C++...

Description

2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 3.

Primitive Types and Operators 17 Modulus Operator % ..................................................................... 17 Conversion Between Different Types in Calculation ........................... 17 Do Not Rely On the Precision of Float Numbers ................................ 17 Assignment Operators .................................................................. 17 Value of Assignment Expression ..................................................... 17 The Integer Value of Character ...................................................... 17 Logic Operators ........................................................................... 17 Control Structures

18

3.1 Control Structures ........................................................................ 18 3.2 if ................................................................................................ 18 3.3 if-else ......................................................................................... 18 3.4 Conditional Operator .................................................................... 18 3.5 while .......................................................................................... 18 3.6 for Loop ...................................................................................... 18 3.7 Avoid Modifying the Control Variable in the Loop Body ...................... 19 3.8 switch ......................................................................................... 19 3.9 do-while...................................................................................... 19 3.10 “break” and “continue” ................................................................. 19 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 5.

Arrays

21

Declare and Initialize Array ........................................................... 21 Array Size Must Be Constant.......................................................... 21 Array Size ................................................................................... 21 Array and Pointer ......................................................................... 21 Pass Array to Function .................................................................. 22 Searching Array ........................................................................... 23 Multiple-Subscripted Array ............................................................ 23 String Handling Functions ............................................................. 23 Pointers and Strings 25

5.1 Pointer Declaration and Initialization............................................... 25 5.2 Casting Between Numeric Address and Pointer ................................ 25 5.3 Constant Pointer and Pointer to Constant ....................................... 25 5.4 Pass Pointer By Reference ............................................................. 25 5.5 Receive array with pointer ............................................................. 26 5.6 Pointer Expressions and Arithmetic ................................................. 26 5.7 Pointer Offset and Subscription ...................................................... 26 5.8 "sizeof" Operator.......................................................................... 27 5.9 Size of String and Character Array ................................................. 27 5.10 Function Pointer and Call Back Technique ........................................ 27 5.11 Array of Function Pointer and Menu-Driven System .......................... 29 5.12 Power and Flexibility of Pointers ..................................................... 29

6.

Class 32

6.1 Class .......................................................................................... 32 6.2 Methods of a Class ....................................................................... 32 6.3 Constructor ................................................................................. 32 6.4 Default Construcotr ...................................................................... 33 6.5 Copy Constructor ......................................................................... 33 6.6 Accessing Class Members .............................................................. 33 6.7 Typical Methods ........................................................................... 33 6.8 Avoid Repeating Code ................................................................... 34 6.9 When Constructors and Destructors are Called................................. 34 6.10 Default Memberwise Copy and Default Memberwise Assignment ........ 34 6.11 Pass-by-value and Copy Constructor .............................................. 34 6.12 Copy Constructor vs. Factory Method.............................................. 34 6.13 Various Places to use “const”: Data Member, Method, Argument and Return type .................................................................................. 35 6.14 Member initializer......................................................................... 36 6.15 Member Objects ........................................................................... 36 6.16 Member Objects Should Be Initialized with Member Initializers .......... 36 6.17 Friend ......................................................................................... 37 6.18 this pointer.................................................................................. 38 6.19 Memory Allocation and Manipulation ............................................... 38 6.20 Pointer Status after delete............................................................. 39 6.21 Memory Leak ............................................................................... 39 6.22 Who is Responsible to Delete an Object .......................................... 39 6.23 Static Data Member ...................................................................... 40 6.24 Static Method .............................................................................. 40 6.25 assert ......................................................................................... 41 6.26 Proxy/Wrapper Classes ................................................................. 41 7.

Operator Overloading

43

7.1 Fundamentals of Operator Overloading ........................................... 43 7.2 Overloading binary operators ......................................................... 43 7.3 Operator > can not be Member Functions.......................... 43 7.4 Overloading Unary Operators ......................................................... 43 7.5 Operator Cascading ...................................................................... 43 7.6 Subscription Operator [ ] .............................................................. 44 7.7 "operator =" and Default Memberwise Copy .................................... 44 7.8 Orthodox Canonical Form (OCF) ..................................................... 44 7.9 Check for Self-assignment ............................................................. 44 7.10 An Example about Pass-by-reference .............................................. 44 7.11 lvalue and rvalue ......................................................................... 44 7.12 Overloading ++ and --.................................................................. 44 7.13 Example: Date Class .................................................................... 45

8.

Inheritance

48

8.1 Method Overriding........................................................................ 48 8.2 Initialization of the Base-class Part of the Object .............................. 48 8.3 Conversion between base class and derived class ............................. 49 8.4 “is-a”, “has-a”, "Use-A" and "Know-A" Relationship .......................... 49 8.5 Public, Protected and Private Inheritance ........................................ 49 8.6 Shrinking Inheritance ................................................................... 50 8.7 Methods That Are Not Inherited ..................................................... 50 8.8 Software Engineering with Inheritance ............................................ 50 8.9 Partial Assignment ....................................................................... 50 8.10 Sequence of Constructor Call in Inheritance .................................... 51 8.11 Default Constructor in Inheritance .................................................. 52 9. 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 10.

Polymorphism 53 Virtual Methods ............................................................................ 53 Polymorphism .............................................................................. 53 Dynamic and Static Binding ........................................................... 53 Abstract Base Class (ABC) ............................................................. 53 Virtual Destructor ......................................................................... 53 Hierarchy for Interface and Implementation .................................... 53 Base Class Idiom ......................................................................... 53 Apply Polymorphism on Operator > .................................. 54 Stream IO 55

10.1 Iostream Library Header Files ........................................................ 55 10.2 Stream IO Classes and Objects ...................................................... 55 10.3 Output the address of a pointer ..................................................... 55 10.4 Method put .................................................................................. 55 10.5 Stream Input ............................................................................... 55 10.6 Unformatted IO............................................................................ 56 10.7 Stream manipulators .................................................................... 56 10.8 Stream Error States ..................................................................... 58 11.

File Processing 59

11.1 Data Hierarchy ............................................................................ 59 11.2 Primary Key ............................................................................... 59 11.3 Files and Streams ........................................................................ 59 11.4 File Open Modes........................................................................... 59 11.5 Checking open and input success ................................................... 59 11.6 Method exit ................................................................................. 60 11.7 File Position Pointer ...................................................................... 60 11.8 Sequential Access File................................................................... 60 11.9 Random Access File and Object Serialization .................................... 60 11.10 File and Directory Manipulation .................................................... 62

1. 1.

C++ BASICS

1.1 1.1

Advantage of Structured Programming

Although it is a trend to use object-oriented programming, structured programming also has its advantage. Internal structure of objects are often best built with structured programming techniques. Also, the logic of manipulating objects is best expressed with structured programming.. 1.2 1.2

Interpreter and Compiler Program

Interpreter programs were developed that can directly execute high-level language programs without the need of compiling these programs into machine language. It is used on cases that programs are frequently updated. Once the program is developed, a compiled version will be produced to run quickly.. 1.3 1.3

Escape Sequence

“\” is escape character. It together with the following character forms an escape sequence used in output statement. They are used to control the printer and are not printed out. “\n” change to a new line. It is a good common practice to add it in the end of all printing statements. “\t”

horizontal tab.

“\r” carriage return – return the cursor to the beginning of current line. “\a”

alert. Sound the system bell.

‘\\”

used to print out a “\”.

“\””

used to print out a double quote.

1.4 1.4

Namespace

#include using namespace std; int main( ) { cout ” plus the method name. 6.3 6.3

Constructor

There is a special method with the same name as the class called constructor. There is no return type (even not void) for this special method. Suppose “Test” is a class, the following line Test t1(35, “Frank”); creates a Test object in compile time, assigning its address to “t1”. Test * ptr = new Test(35, “Frank”); "new" is a special method which creates a Test object dynamically at run time and returns a pointer to that new object. The returned pointer is received by “ptr”. The following lines int calculate(Test &); // Function prototype calculate( Test(35, “Frank”) ); Test * ptr = &Test(35, “Frank”); create a Test object in compile time, but do not assign a name, instead point a pointer or reference to it. Default arguments are recommended for constructors so that even if no arguments are passed to the object the data members can still be initialized to a consistent state. STL containers requires the objects to have default constructors. Constructor can be overloaded. Normally three kinds of constructors are needed: 1. 1.

Default constructor: no arguments;

2. 2. Constructor: object;

has all arguments to construct an unique

3. 3. Copy constructor: has an argument its own type, to copy a new object out of it. The default constructor and normal constructor can be merged into one if the normal constructor uses default arguments. If no constructor is provided, the compiler automatically insert a default constructor. This default constructor does not perform any

operation. So the data members of the object may not be consistent. Built-in types are not initialized when created. ♦ 

User-defined Converters

Suppose a method has an argument of type "Child", which has an one-argument constructor "Child(Parent)". When you call this method, if you pass a "Parent" object instead of "Child", the compiler will implicitly call the one-argument constructor and convert the "Parent" object to "Child". class Base { public: Base(int a) : member(a) { cout
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